The Harmonist
Sree Sajjanatoshani

Edited by - Sri Srimad Bhakti Siddhanta Saraswati Goswami Maharaj

VOL. XXVII. JUNE, 1929, 443 Chaitanya-Era No. 1

Harmonist's Feeble Voice

Numerical determinations are often found to create difference in the idea of unit but harmony can cement the gulf in counting them in one category. The manifested world often shows a threefold division when observer, observation and observed are considered in their respective locations but they are viewed for one purpose only if the harmonious spirit prevails to unify them. Years roll on, seasons change and months differ. The Harmonist marches with the same tie of love in her passing through the tracks of time, space and of objects. She has no other ambition than to bring peace among individuals, to remove temporal discrepancies and to extend the limitation. The Harmonist is not an advocate of untiring worldly activities neither is she a renouncer of material prosperity. She does not encourage the idea of annihilation in nondifference neither does she prove to be identified with the indivisible whole. The schools of elevation and salvation have not taught anything to incorporate her own identity with the acquisionists nor to merge info nonentity. It would be a sheer mistake if the Harmonist is classed in the same line with seekers of insentient or sentient pleasures. She does not claim to gain anything or to lose herself in persuasion of any misguided thought current among the sojourners of the sensual atmosphere.

Readers might have formed the idea by reading the lines of Harmonist during her publication of a singular characteristic which is not to be had in a secular shop. The Harmonist deals with a subject easily accessible to one and all but the common run has had no ardent sympathy for the same. She deals with a subject which is the paramount necessity of one and all but the people are not so very mindful as they think they are at present not in need of it. Unaware of the transcendence the agnostics might show an indifference towards her moving direction, critics and incredulous must be throwing doubts in her advancements and Atheists might emphatically stand against her. The Harmonist's all-loving mood will not be disturbed in the least. The pantheist will try to include her, claiming a wider situation for his self but her theistic mood will appear to him to be a limited one. The neuter phase of theism as inculcated by the pantheists will prove his predilection of putting Godhead among the neuter products which should never accommodate Him Who by nature of His office cannot form a part He being Himself the fountainhead off all sentients and insentients. If Godhead is conceived by a sentient agent as a neuter figure such designation can never meet to any intelligent section. Idolatry now-a-days has become a subject of wrong conception of Godhead and hence neuter phase is not targeted as the Supreme phase of the eternally manifested Godhead.

In the animated kingdom, the value set forth by designing men of the neuter phase of Godhead is not appreciated much, so they proceed further to have the true phase of the source of this manifestation. A masculine phase comes upon the scene of the adventurer whom they call the object of worship of the theists. The reciprocal relationship inherent in the feminine phase has no lien in their attempt at finding out the Absolute truth if the counterpart is ignored. The worshipper of masculine form can never properly serve him unless the knower or server designates himself. If the devotee of a masculine form of Godhead wants to serve his master, considering a masculine form of his own self his assumption of service includes his inexpressed ideas of mastery over other individuals who might in their turn offer their service for his upkeep. The masculine aspect of the object of worship cannot have a full play unless the reciprocal co-relative comes upon the visual range of her consort. Rational worshippers will then find that the eternal service -holder has got an eternal frame by which she can serve her beloved. The Harmonists will then find an opportunity to regulate the angle of vision of her friend who proves to be an honest seeker of Absolute Truth. The Harmonist helps thereby to determine for her friend to shake off the foreign ideas which have been picked up from mundane association during the sojourn of different lives.

As the absolute truth cannot admit of any deviation from true knowledge, i. e., the eternal absolute and harmonising masculine form of Godhead and his paraphernalia, viz., His eternal absolute and ecstatic female co-relatives together with insentient spirituals environments in favour of the defective hallucinations of erring observers who are busy with their ephemeral inadequate sensuous pleasures. The mountainous height of earthly ethics might prove very high to a dwarf treading on the inductive plane, the loftiest position of the distantmost star are zenith of the highest, superexcellent and seemingly unethical features of the Personality of Absolute Knowledge might appear shorter if the transcendental descriptions are compared by the poverty-stricken senses of fallible humanity.

The Harmonists has however taken up the lofty task of imparting true theistic impressions of absolute in their comparative merits and she will continue to serve the spiritual dishes to her misguided and bigoted friends who place their confidence in senses only. Her prayer may be heard by lending ears of theists who are the honest seekers of Absolute Knowledge.


The Sajjanatoshani was founded by Thakur Bhaktivinode as the organ of the present movement of pure devotion initiated by himself as the followers of Sree Rupa Goswami, the associate of Lord Chaitanya Who made him the original Acharyya of the principle of loving devotion. The movement has spread widely since the foundation of the Sajjanatoshani. A very large number of sincere souls of this country have attained the life of loving service of the Lord. The assumption of the English garb by the journal is the result of the extension of the movement and is prophetic of the tendency of further and world-wide expansion. The name of "Harmonist" which has been adopted by the English Sajjanatoshani may appear at first sight to be also more cosmopolitan than the older sanskrit title which means literally a female who pleases the Lord's own. The Harmonist aims at promoting the real concord. But the English title is not really different in its significance from the original title of the paper. Harmony is to be found in the spiritual service of the Lord alone. The Harmonist has dedicated herself to the service of those who are themselves loyal servants of the original source of all harmony. The service of the servants of the Lord is the only way open to fallen souls for regaining the service of the Lord. There is no other way of establishing real concord among those who are averse to God than by obeying the devotees of the Lord. The Lord is served by the concerted homage of the many to One. The Harmonist has no affinity with those who hope to bring about concord by ignoring wholly or partially the transcendental service of the Lord. The worldly cosmopolitan is believer in the potency of the vox populi and prospects of worldly enjoyment. The Harmonist pins her faith in the Vox dei and prospects of spiritual living based thereon. She strives to please not everybody indiscriminately but only the servants of the Lord. Unless the people prefer to obey the servants of the Lord to following their own erring inclination for worldly aggrandisement there can be no real harmony in this world. To try to please the servants of the Lord is the same thing as, nay, even higher than, trying to please the Lord. The Harmonist is prepared to serve the demon, only if the demon itself obeys the Lord and not otherwise. By trying to please those who do not serve the Lord the prevailing confusion will be worse confounded.

The method adopted by the Harmonist for the promotion of concord has nothing in common with the methods adopted by the humanists who rely on themselves and their fellow-being for the attainment of their purpose. The miseries had discords of the world are generally supposed to be due to ignorance of the Laws of Nature and the significance of the moral order. By providing ethical instruction and opportunities for the practice of social and humanitarian virtues and by the diffusion of the knowledge of the Laws of Nature for the efficient performance of virtuous work the humanist hopes to make all persons attain the peace of the conscience. The plan and object of the Harmonist are different. The Harmonist does not believe that instincts of fallen souls can supply the real basis for rearing the structure of universal peace and happiness. The fallen souls naturally covet the things of this world for their own selfish enjoyment. As the things of this world are unfortunately limited in quantity and perishable by nature and as the physical senses themselves posses only limited powers of enjoyment and are subject to lose their power the attempt to increase and perfect worldly enjoyment is doomed to perpetual failure. The real peace of conscience is to be sought elsewhere. Man must discard the guidance of his limited and misleading understanding and seek for enlightenment from above in a spirit of real humility. The practical way of attaining spiritual enlightenment is that of the service of the servants of the Lord. The fallen soul must submit to receive the knowledge of his real self and of his relation to the supreme Soul from those who are themselves enlightened. The limited understanding must not be allowed to shut out the unlimited. When once the Higher Knowledge really makes his appearance the limited understanding will automatically realise the nature and method of spiritual activities in the light that comes from the source of all light. By trying to settle our duties in the light of the will-o'-the wisp of our perverted conscience we are only guided by foolishness which we are pleased to call by the name of free individual judgement. The real freedom is the eternal quality of the spotless soul which has no affinity with or hankering for his own selfish enjoyment. Neither is the soul in his natural condition of enlightened freedom disposed to the self-destructive vanity of stoic passivity. The free soul's unremitting and sole concern is to serve the Transcendental Truth which is obscured in his fallen state by the fog created by the vanity of the flesh to which the soul subjects himself by his own free choice. The right to this self-elected bondage to the hankering of the flesh has been adopted from time immemorial as the basic principle of the political social and individual life of incarcerated humanity in his temporary sojourn to this prison house of correction. The Harmonist pleads for a revision of this basic principle of life in the light of higher considerations. The light from the source can alone guide us on the eternal path. Our individual lights are not independent sources of illumination but have to be continuously trimmed for the preservation of their tiny lights by contact with the source of all light. The connection between the source and the dependent light is served by the vanity of having independent existence in the fallen state. It is necessary to re-establish the interrupted connection not by the knowledge accumulated by the inductive sciences which are themselves the product of the deceptive light of the soul in the state of rebellion against the fundamentals of his own constituent principles but by the knowledge that comes from the fountainhead of all light who has His eternal abode in the shining realms of the spirit. The method of submissive listening to the tidings of the spiritual world, which transcends without ignoring this phenomenal universe, from the lips of emancipated souls who serve eternally and exclusively the real Truth, is only way of obtaining the grace of Divine enlightenment. The Harmonist stands for this principle by theory and practice. She is by principle and practice the eternal and exclusive servant of the servants of the Lord and her sole duty is to try to please only them, and thereby continue the method and purpose of Thakur Bhaktivinode, embodied in the Sajjanatoshani, the humble maid-in-waiting on the servants of the Lord.

How to Knock

By Prof. Jatindra Mohan Ghose, M.A, B,L.

"KNOCK, and the door will be open on to you"- so says the holy Bible. Let us see what it means.

We may at once say, the general run of readers of the Bible understand it in quite a different light from the Indian Transcendentalists. The apparent meaning of the text is - and this is the interpretation of almost all people- that if we endeavour patiently and persistently we can reach the goal and acquire the desired objects. So that the acquisition of the desired thing rests entirely with us, it is within our means and reach and there is nothing else that may count in the fulfilment of our desired.

We admit, there is a good deal of truth in the above meaning put upon it, and it may hold good more or less in almost all cases. Yet we must say, there is not the whole truth in this meaning. Although this interpretation may be partly acceded to with regard to efforts for things mundane, it cannot be so admitted in the case of matters spiritual; moreover, the above truth has been said with regard to spiritual truth.

In whatever sphere, spiritual or material, the above saying may be applied, in its popular interpretation, one factor is generally and sadly ignored- that is-the opener of the door. Efforts of knocking in varying degrees and methods no doubt rests with a particular individual. But to judge its propriety, earnestness, intensity and the rightness of the method, and the freedom of giving response to it, depends entirely upon the mercy of the Master of the house inside the door in whose hands the key is. The Master may take mercy and respond: He may open the door, let the knocker in show him things within, and may bestow upon him anything He likes. The knocker may only knock and pray, it is for the Master to listen to the prayer and open the lock. The Master has the absolute liberty and authority in this matter.

Nor can the man break open the door and capture the things from the inside. Even in this material world in one out of a hundred cases, one can hardly break open the door of the house of another. Then what to speak of breaking open the gate of the transcendental region of the Lord? Efforts of mortal beings do not reach the gate of Heaven so easily.

So, in order to properly understand the true meaning of the passage quoted above, two things have always to be borne in mind, viz., the freedom of an individual to knock and pray, and the absolute freedom of the Lord to show mercy. We are free conscious beings, and can and do make a free choice of doing anything or not. When we make the right choice and go the right way, we prosper and become happy; otherwise we suffer. We may choose to make efforts for knowing the truth and to pray to the Lord to reveal it. But our desire and prayer to must be sincere and ardent, and our efforts must be directed in the right way. Improper method and misdirected efforts will only lead to disappointment. Here comes in the necessity of submission to and help from an expert who knows the Truth and can be a proper guide. He knows the right method- which is again the eternal method-and is competent to properly advise and lead the sincere seeker to the ultimate goal. Our individual freedom does not preclude such advice and guidance from the expert, the true preceptor. Rather, proper use of freedom implies it. It is our free choice to submit to him for attaining true and eternal freedom. For to know the truth is the highest freedom. Such submission to the good preceptor, i.e., the expert, continues even when we have reached the Truth. For the Absolute Truth or Godhead ever reveals Himself, that is, responds-through the good preceptor who is in eternal communion with Him on the same transcendental plane, and is His eternally associated Counterpart, Bound as we are in this limited world with limited capacities, our poor efforts of themselves cannot go very far and transcend the mundane limit. It is the mercy and help of the good preceptor eternally playing the role of the Saviour that accepts and complements our efforts and reaches them to the Holy feet of the Godhead. Our knocking reaches the door only through the preceptor-the Saviour. So that our knocking practically means earnest and complete submission and abandonment to the feet of Godhead's Saviour on this earth. Then and then only have we properly and surely knocked. We may know really and reasonably expect a response, and the response too now really begins to descend. Sincerity and earnestness are established in proportion to the submission to the preceptor. It may now please God to open the door. As a matter of fact, under such circumstances, i.e., on the completion of submission. God does respond and fling open the door of His mystery and beauty to the ardent votary. Although He is absolute free in this matter of showing mercy and opening the door, yet when the good preceptor or the Saviour takes along the submitted Soul up to the door and appeals in His favour, God withholds His freedom and blesses the devotee with His infinite mercy of revelation. This is what is meant by saying Godhead, the Absolute Lord of the Universe, is submissive to (the wishes of) His devotee. This is how proper knocking is done and the door opens up. Indian transcendentalists,-true devotees-understand the text of the Bible quoted above in this sense only-which is really the true meaning of the text. It is so declared in the Sruti-Truth is not attainable by mere mental speculation, neither by extraordinary merit nor by extensive learning. Truth may be attained by him alone whom Truth selects, i.e., He pleases to favour. To him (the favoured or the chosen) Truth reveals His ownself,-(Kat.Upa 1-2-23)

It is not possible for an ordinary creature to achieve this end independently of direction and assistance from the good preceptor. The secret of successful knocking and prayer is never known to an ordinary being, for it concerns a thing belonging to a plane beyond and above the mental, and passes all ordinary human comprehensions. No amount of mental, activities and earthly learning is of any avail in comprehending things of the spiritual plane. Accordingly a course of discipline is indispensably necessary in order to qualify for admission into the Kingdom of Heaven-to learn to rise above the plane of mental existence for eternally living in the spiritual plane. The good preceptor-the spiritual guide-can train up and enable a man to rise above the mortal mental and physical existence so that the man can reach the gate of Truth and properly knock at it. As has been said above this good preceptor-although appearing in human garb, and seemingly moving like an ordinary mortal,-is ever one of the spiritual plane but mercifully come down to this earth, is firmly established in the Absolute truth, perfectly competent to answer all questions and remove all doubts of a sincere seeker, and to enlighten and show the way. It is the preceptor who takes the devoted seeker, and to aloft, the only condition of his such selfless and invaluable service being absolutely unselfish and perfect surrender on the part of the seeker himself. Of course, such a good preceptor-the Super man-cannot be found out at every turn of the street. Yet he is, and is not unavailable to a sincere seeker. For he is ever here by the infinite of God for helping such seekers. And it is a very curious secret and inscrutable Divine Law that such a preceptor is found out and trusted upon by an earnest and sincere seeker only and non else. Further it is another such law that whenever the merciful God is pleased to reveal Himself (Truth) to any soul on the earth, He does it through the Acharyya, The good preceptor who is his trusted eternal servant, by creating a keen desire for such an Acharyya-the spiritual guide, and persuading a sincere faith and reliance on the Acharyya, in the mind of the seeker of truth. If one would believe in such Acharyya, well and good. If not ,he is doomed to grope about in the meshes of darkness of ignorance for long and long till he is made to put faith and seek shelter in the ever merciful Acharyya. Whatever and however much may be said against this, it is but divine dispensation. There is no other way.

The seeker now surrenders to the good preceptor and becomes his disciple. The preceptor too accepts him and sets him on a course of discipline. He is now set on the path to the gate of Truth, and with the preceptor's constant and unstinted help at every step makes advance towards the goal. The good preceptor teaches him how to approach and knock. He gradually approaches and ultimately reaches and knocks. The Lord is now pleased with him at his sincere and disinterested devotion, and mercifully opens up the door of the realm of Truth and eternal bliss. He is admitted in and here begins the devotee's new yet eternal spiritual life of uninterrupted direct service of the Lord, and he is constantly merged in the ocean of perfect bliss. Here too the devotee finds himself beside his ever merciful good preceptor who has ungrudgingly gives him all directions and opportunities of enjoying the bliss.

The seeker first learns to knock and then knocks. The door is flung open, and he is permitted in and finds himself face to face with infinite Truth. This light in which the Indian transcendentalists understand this passage of the Bible will appeal and be intelligible to those only who have firm faith in the Godhead as also in the good preceptor-the true servant of God.

Sree Raghunath Das Goswami

THE word "Goswami” means 'master of the senses or master of the world'. One who is the master of his senses is necessarily also 'master of the world'. The six Goswamis who are the original exponents of the teachings of Sri Chaitanya should not be regarded as mere authors or geniuses. They are acharyas whose function consists in expounding Shastras by simultaneously leading the spiritual life embodied therein. They are seers and saints in one. This one combination of transcendental scholarship with spiritual life is insisted upon by Sri Chaitanya as the necessary qualification of all teachers of the living truth. It is quite possible for a person to possess the spiritual life without being a master of the Shastras just as it is possible for a person to have excellent physical health without a knowledge of the principles of medical science. One who is able to help others to attain the spiritual life by his writing, speeches and conduct must be well-versed in the Shastras. But the successful worldly physician need not necessarily be himself healthy. The spiritual physician is, however, required to be both thoroughly acquainted with the principles of his science and be himself a perfectly healthy person. These two conditions were satisfied by six Goswamis, the authorised exponents of the teachings: of Lord Chaitanya, of whom Sri Raghunath Das is one.

The purpose of this discourse is to present a brief account of the life of Sri Das Goswami one of the six original Goswamis of the Goudiya Community which follows Sri Chaitanya, as recorded mainly in Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita written by his contemporary and disciple, Krishna Das Kabiraj Goswami. The attainment of the purpose is of course conditional on following on the method illustrated by the life of the hero of this discourse. The lapses and blunders of an aspiring novice on the path of spiritual enlightenment, who is free from guile, are, however, graciously overlooked by Sri gurudeva in order to afford an opportunity of self-improvement through association in spiritual service, to fallen jivas. This small effort is humbly offered to the lotus feet of Sri Gurudeva and the Vaishnavas in the hope that their kind acceptance will save the writer from the offence of ignorant presumption.

Sri Raghunath Das Goswami appeared in this world at the village of Krishnapur in the modern district of Huguli in Bengal in the year 1414 of the saka era, corresponding to 1492 A.D., seven years after the birth of Sri Chaitanya. The village can be reached from the Trishbigha Station on the E.I. Ry. Line from where it is about a mile and a half distant. It still contains a shrine of Sri Sri Radha Govinda which is unwisely considered to be the worship established originally by Gobardhan Mazumdar, the father of Sree Raghunath Das. While still a mere lad, Raghunath Das had the good fortune, which is the cause of the subsequent spiritual turn in his life, of meeting Thakur Haridas while the letter was staying in the house of Balaram Acharyya, the family priest of the Mazumdars, at the letter's village of Chandpur to the east of Krishnapur. Thakur Haridas was then on his way to Santipur after he left Benapole. The little child experienced an irresistible attraction for Thakur Haridas and was often with him. Shortly after Raghunath's marriage when he was about sixteen years old he met Sri Chaitanya for the first time at the house of Advaitacharyya at Santipur while the Lord was staying there immediately after acceptance of sannyas. Sri Advaita Prabhu was well known to the Mazumdars and specially to Gobardhan who was indefatigable in the service of the Acharyya. For this reason Advaitacharyya was well disposed towards Raghunath and it was by the favour of Advaita that Raghunath obtained the remains of the Lord's meal and the sight of His holy feet for the space of several days.

Sri Chaitanya proceeded to Puri and Raghunath, on his return home, went mad with love for the Lord. He fled from home again and again in order make his way to Nilachal but was brought back by his father every time after he had proceeded some distance. Then his father had him bound hand and foot and set five men to watch him and four servants and two Brahmanas to keep him company at all time. Very much grieved by being thus prevented from going to Puri, Raghunath passed his days of close captivity with a sad heart till Sri Chaitanya came to Santipur a second time on His way back to Puri from Ramkeli.

Raghunath pressed his father hard for permission to come over to Santipur for a sight of the feet of the Lord giving out that it would be impossible for him to survive if the permission was refused. Gobardhan Mazumdar accordingly sent his son to Santipur with abundance of rich presents and escorted by a large number of attendants, requiring him to return home soon. Raghunath attended on the supreme Lord at Santipur for seven days and importuned Him night and day as to how he was escape from his keepers and accompany the Lord to Nilachal. The omniscient Lord who was aware of the actual state of his mind communicated to him the hope of deliverance by way of instruction.

The Lord said, 'Be calm and go back home. Don't be mad. People attain the shores of the ocean of the worldly sojourn by slow degrees. Don't imitate the asceticism of an ape for the applause of the people. Enjoy the legitimate things of this world being free from attachment. Let your devotion be of the heart and let your external conduct be as of this world. Even so Krishna will speedily deliver you. When I come back to Nilachal after visiting Brindaban find some pretext for coming up to me.' Krishna will cause the trick to suggest itself to you at the time. Who can keep back one to whom Krishna is merciful? The Supreme Lord sent him away with these words.

Raghunath on his return home acted according to the instructions of the Lord. He gave up all his external asceticism and madness and applied himself to the performance of all legitimate work in the spirit of complete detachment. Raghunath led a life which resembled that of worldly people although he was at heart wholly unattached to the things of this world. His parents supposed that Raghunath's temporary madness was cured and he had once again become a normally worldingly like themselves. They were very glad at this supposed change.

When Raghunath received the tidings of the Lord's return from Mathura he made ready to join Him. At this stage a great mishap befell the family. There was a high Mahammadan official who was 'the Choudhury' of the district Saptagrama. Hiranya Das, the elder brother of Gobardhan, secured the sole right of collecting the revenues of the district on a permanent basis. The Mahammadan was chagrined on finding his own authority supplanted in this manner, Hiranyadas undertook to pay to the royal treasury twelve lacs out of a net collection of twenty lacs of rupees. The truck went against him as he got nothing. He made effective representation to the king against the Mazumdars. The vizir came down in person to inquire. Hiranyadas fled. Raghunath was put in chains. They rebuked him everyday threatening him with punishment unless he could make his father and uncle deliver themselves up. They had a mind to beat Raghunath. But whenever they tried to act according to their resolve the sight of Raghunath made them desist. They were really afraid at heart of the superior intelligence of the Kayastha noble and although they stormed and blustered, feared to strike their prisoner. Thereafter Raghunath bethought of a means of extrication out of the difficulty, and laid his plan in the form of a humble supplication at the feet of the Moslem. 'My father and uncle are as two brothers of yourself. You always quarrel among yourselves by fraternal right. You sometimes quarrel and then love one another again. There is no certainty of your changing moods. Let all three brothers meet to-morrow. I am a son to you even as I am of my father. I am your protégé and you are my protector. It is not meet for a protector to punish his protégé. You are well versed in all the scriptures and resemble a great Pir'.

The Moslem's heart was deeply moved by the words of Raghunath and he began to weep, the tears trickling down his beard. The tyrant confessed that from that day Raghunath was really as a son to him and that he would devise a method of setting him free that very day. He then procured the release of Raghunath by interceding with the Vizir. He then spoke kindly to Raghunath, 'Your uncle is unwise. He gets eight lacs. I am his lawful co-sharer. He ought to give me something. Bestir yourself and get your to meet me. Let him settle it in the way that appears to him to be fair. I entrust the whole matter to you'. Thereafter Raghunath effected a reconciliation between his uncle and the Mahammadan. He had gained a controlling influence over the Moslem and settled everything peacefully.

(To be continued.)

Views on Creation

(By Prof. Nimananda Dasadhicary Sevatirtha, B.Ag, B.T.)

PEOPLE generally ask three questions -- whence is this creation? Why is this creation? And when is this creation? Different schools of thought give different replies to them. These are empirical questions and their empirical solutions are, indeed, not possible. Yet two sets of replies to these questions commend themselves for our discussion -- one given by the Mayavadi School of thought, and the other given by the Vaishnava School of thought. The former, proceeding from the known to unknown, has, in fact, tackled these problems in an empiric way. The latter, proceeding from the veiled absolute knowledge to the known, has given a solution of them as found in the scriptures which are infallible guides in matters spiritual.

The Mayavadi does not believe in the existence of a personal God as the creator of this world. According to him God is impersonal. He is distinguishable. There is none to know Him and there is none whom He knows. The existence of this creation is due to Maya or ignorance. It is unreal and merely phenomenal. It is an illusion. The ignorance which is the cause of the creation is not eternal and consequently phenomenon as the creation is also not eternal. You think it exists, and therefore it exists; but as soon as you think otherwise it ceases to exist for you. The world is of your own creation, and you are yourself one of the things of this creation. You are both the subject and the objects of your creation. As you realise yourself, all this Meum et Tuum, difference and differentiation of the world go once for all. What is then left is Brahma, and you are That.

Now who will solve these problems for you and whom can you approach for their solution? So long as you are under the influence of this Maya, you cannot trust yourself nor can you trust any other man who is equally illusory. None of you-- yourself and your adviser-- have any locus standi in positive reality. But the solution also necessarily lies entirely with you. You realise and know. It is a matter of experience and not of credence. You cannot ask these questions. For in that case you take away the world from itself. You cannot measure the world by when, why and whence. It is because that whence, why and when are themselves the world, and that your illusory self that goes to ascertain the why, the whence and the when of the world is itself not different from these things. To know the world you must be something different from the world, something beyond the world. But you are not that. You being the world, it is not possible for you to know it. A man in a dream cannot say when his dream begins. For the dreaming self and the object of the dream make their appearance in the dream simultaneously and are therefore themselves the dream.

The vaishnavas, the true: Vedantists, on the other hand, abhor such a solution as blasphemous. They say "God is, the world is and Jiva or the individual soul is." They are distinct entities, coexisting. None of them are false.

The world is an ever-changing reality but God and jiva are unchanging realities as master and servant. As the sun and its rays are one so God and Jiva are one. "My father and I are one." God is all knowledge, and He cannot forget Himself into a man. He is ever perfect and forgetfulness cannot enter to His character. He is all powerful, and there is nothing to overpower Him. He is always above ignorance or Maya. Maya is His handiwork, His maid and not His mistress. Mayavadin's God is a helpless chap always in the grip of Maya. He cannot get away from her. If at one time He thinks Himself free, at another time He is made to lick the dust at the feet of Maya. His freedom from maya is most unsteady, if His thraldom were illusion, His freedom is nothing better than it. The Vaishnava's God is transcendental personal entity. He is the Supreme being. One without a second. He is the fountainhead of all energies three of which are known as Atma-shakti, Jiva-shakti, and Maya-shakti. In Atma shakti is manifested the Chit world or the Baikuntha, In Jiva shakti is manifested the limited, imperfect souls or Jivas and in maya shakti is manifested the Achit world that we see. The insentient Nature which is the cause of the insentient world supplies us with the physical body. Our imperfection leads us to seek for enjoyment in an atmosphere independent of God when we become encased in this body as punishment. Our attempt to become free has led us to bondage. Thus encased we forget our real self and always identify our self with the body. This is our ignorance. If ignorance is gone, we realise ourselves as the slave of God. Our measured eternal self is not but the identification of our self with our body is illusory. Once we overcome this illusion we do not fall into it again.

For a fallen individual soul the world begins from the when he is conscious in it. It is therefore not at all possible for it to ascertain the whence the why and the when of the world. It being now of the world cannot measure it. But nevertheless, the world is there. It is not false or illusory as is supposed by the Mayavadi. Jiva and the world are at once distinct and nondistinct from God. To human scope this simultaneous existence of distinction and nondistinction is inconceivable. In all-embracing reality all is possible. We cannot separate the idea of the world from that of God. God and the world are one. When there is God there is manifestation just as whenever there is the sun there are rays.

Doctrines of Sri Chaitanya

By Prof. Nishi Kanta Sanyal, M.A.

The doctrines of Sri Chaitanya are put tersely by an old author in a well-known Sloka which reads as follows. 'The Divine son of the Lord of Braja is to be worshipped with devotion. Brindaban is His holy realm. The worship that is practised by the matrons of Braja is alone excellent. The unimpeachable evidence of this is contained in the Srimad Bhagabata. The transcendental love for the Lord is the highest good. This is the doctrine taught by the Supreme Lord Sri Chaitanya. There is nothing deserving of higher loving esteem'.

The spiritual is eternally and categorically distinct from the limited, apparent, phenomenal, material or mundane. The mental faculties of man are by their constitution incapable of attaining the complete knowledge of anything. But the attainment of complete knowledge of the truth is universally regarded as the goal of the activities of the cognitive principle in man. The existence of man is realisable by him through the principle of self-consciousness. The cognitive principle may therefore be regarded as the stuff of the self or soul of man. The attainment of the truth is thus the fulfilment of the principle of human existence. Man's relation with God-head becomes absolutely necessary and indispensable if only Godhead is identical with the truth.

But the Godhead be, indeed, identical with the complete or absolute truth how is it possible for man with his limited faculties to know Him? The complete or absolute truth is located beyond the reach of the faculties of man. To err is human. The judgement of man is liable to be affected by the force of his changing moods. The senses of man are defective. Man often deceives himself and others consciously and unconsciously. It is on account of these draw-backs that it is not possible for man to have a complete knowledge of the truth.

The complete or absolute truth is, therefore, not a mental phenomenon or a tentative opinion regarding matters conceivable by the faculties of the mind. It is spiritual as distinct from the mental. In this world man ordinarily leads a mental existence. The very first question that is bound to occur to all who are not determined to stifle their innate hankering for the knowledge of the complete or real truth, is whether there exists any means of realising the deepest hankering of the soul?

The spiritual transcends phenomenal or mental. It cannot be known by any mental effort. The so called truth is attainable by the effort of the human mind is an inelastic, limited, material or dead thing. The real, complete or spiritual truth is an unlimited, living, indivisible, self-conscious entity. Empiric or mental truth has to be acquired and is not self-communicative. It is complete or dependent on other similar truth for its very existence. It is only apparent truth having no specific existence of its own. The apparent is related to the real as shadow to substance, darkness to light, death to life or falsehood to the truth. The two cannot co-exist. The presence of the one means the absence of the other. The mental life is the negation of the spiritual life as mental truth is the negation of spiritual truth. The difference between the two is more than qualitative. It is also exclusive.

The spiritual truth can be attained only by spiritual methods. The mental method is a process of advance from the apparently known to the unknown but knowable. It is the ascending process. The spiritual method is different from the inductive as well as deductive processes of empiric logic. The intuitions which form the basis of deductions are themselves the inherited products of experience handed down through the gross physical body from parent to child. There is, therefore, no difference between the inductive and deductive processes, the two together forming the complete whole of all empiric reasoning. These methods being limited by experience gathered through our defective senses are inapplicable to investigations of the empirically unknowable.

The revealed word of the Veda claims to be the only source available to us of spiritual enlightenment. The transcendental word appears to us in the form of sound and is orally communicable from preceptor to disciple. Information regarding the phenomena of this world is also communicable through the medium of sound verified by the testimony of the other senses. The spiritual communication cannot be conveyed by means of sound that targets objects of this world or thoughts and ideas regarded them. The sound that is charged with the message of the eternal is also necessarily itself eternal and self-revealing. It is, however, almost impossible to understand or admit this with our present convictions regarding the nature of ordinary sounds. There is sound and sound. That which is admittedly unknowable to our mental effort can never appear to it in the form of the knowable familiar vibration in air. The ordinary sounds of the mundane atmosphere are on a level with the corresponding physical organ of senses, viz. the fleshy ear. The transcendental sound which comes down from the realm of the absolute and manifests itself on the lips of the pure servants of the Lord communicates itself to the soul of the jiva through the medium of the attentive ear that is rendered fit to receive it with the faith that the sound itself is identical with the self-communicative living knowledge of the otherwise unknowable reality.

The word of the Veda or revealed knowledge imparted orally to the disciple by the good preceptor who is specially empowered by the Lord to communicate the spiritual message and understanding to fallen souls is the only and substantive evidence of the unknown and empirically unknowable.

The Author of Sri Chaitanya-Charitamrita

KRISHNA Das Kabiraj, the illustrious author of Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita the most authoritative work on the life and teachings of the Supreme Lord Srikrishna Chaitanya, appeared at Jhamatpur near Salar st. (E.I.R. 101 miles from Howrah), about the middle of the fifteenth century of the saka era. At the place where he passed his days in the village there still exist the Holy Images of Sri Sri Gour and Nityananda. In a dream he was ordered by Lord Nityananda to leave Jhamatapur ; so he went to Brindaban where he passed the rest of his life. The memorial over his ashes is still to be found in the temple of Sri Radha Damodar at Brindanban.

Approximate Date of Appearance.
The time of his appearance may be ascertained from certain incidents. The year 1537 of the saka era is the year of his finishing his literary labours-- so says a certain sloka. Some say that this sloka is written by the man who copied his works, and not by Krishna Das himself. In another of his books we find that he mentions the name of Sri Gopal Champu which was in with the year 1512 of the saka era, corresponding to 1590 A.D. Sri Chaitanya Chandrodaya Nataka, a sanskrit drama-- composed in the year 1498 of the saka era corresponding 1576 well as books written in between the years 1189 and 1521 of the saka era, viz., Dina Chandrica, Ekadasi tattwa and Malamasatattwa are referred to in his works. Chaitanya Charitamrita is, therefore, a later work. Srimat Raghunath Das Goswami was a direct disciple of Chaitanya Deva. In his Danacharita he mentions the name of Krishna Das. The last sloka of Sri Gobindalilamrita by Krishna Das proves that he was a contemporary of Gopal Bhatta and other followers of the Supreme Lord. From these as well as from other contemporary incidents we may come to the conclusion that he lived in this world from 1452 to 1538 of the saka era or 1530 to 1616 A.D. approximately.

Sri Brindaban Das Thakur, to whom the world is indebted for the invaluable book Sri Chaitanya Bhagabata, appeared after the year 1432 of the saka era (1510 A.D.). Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita is the supplement of Sri Chaitanya Bhagabata. Sri Jiva Goswami appeared before 1435 of the saka era (1513 A.D.). From a list of Sri Chaitanya's devotees who were contemporaries of the Lord and who lived at Brindaban when Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita was composed, we come to know that Hari Das Pandit who was in charge of the worship of Sri Govinda Deva and was a disciple of Anantacharya himself a disciple of Sri Gadadhar Pandit Goswami, Govinda Goswami the favourite attedant of Gobinda a disciple of Kashishwar Goswami, Jadabacharyya Goswami an associate of Sri Rupa Goswami, Chaitanya Das who was a worshipper of Gobinda and disciple of Bhugarbha Goswami a disciple of Sri Gadadhar pandit Goswami, Mukund Ram Chakrabarti, Krishna Das who was all loving, Jivananda Chakrabarti a disciple of Adwaita Prabhu, Gossindas the worshipper of Holy image and other vaishnavas, were then still in this world. None of the six Goswamis-- Sri Jiva, Sri Gopal Bhatta, Sri Raghunath Bhatta, Sri Raghunath Das, Sri Rupa and Sri Sanatana Goswami-- were present in this world at that time, nor were Sri Bhugarbha and other Vaishnavas of his time. Had they been present in this mundane world there would have been some mention of his craving their permission for writing this book.

The Author's Caste
Opinions differ regarding the caste of the author. Sri Krishna Das wrote a voluminous sanskrit book Sri Gobindalilamrita and was thenceforward known as Kabiraj in the Vaishnva world. In Gauda the Brahmans, the Kayasthas and the Vaidyas have ever been the most learned castes. There were others who were not so learned, still they commanded respect in society. They carried on trade and commerce and were useful to their country in various ways. Their professions were not held in contempt but respectability and social position were denied to those who did menial duties and carried on trade in things tabooed by Hindu society. There are different theories regarding the caste of Krishna Das. Those who are versed in literature, rhetoric or other branches of art are called Kabirajas, as also those who are versed in medical science. Hence Krishnadas might be supposed by some as a Vaidya. He was highly proficient in Philosophy, Sruti, smritis and Logic and hence he has also supposed to have been a Brahman. On account of his vast knowledge of worldly affairs and dealings with worldly-minded men he has also been regarded by some as a Kayastha. There are analogous differences of opinion regarding the castes of Ram Das the author of Kabyaprakas a book of rhetoric, Kasiram Das the author of the Mahabharata in Bengali, Bharat Mullik and other Goudiya authors.

(To be continued.)

Teaching Methods of Sri Chaitanya

In order to be acquainted with Chaitanya Deva's method of teaching we must have recourse to Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita, as He has left no book of His own composition, indeed nothing save and except His eight teachings (Sikshastaka). A few more slokas are found in the Padyabali, but they do not give us any systematic idea of His teachings. There are a few booklets which are said to be the works of the Supreme Lord, but they do not seem to be authentic. The Goswamis have left some works of their own in which the teachings of Chaitanya Deva are found in abundance but there is nothing in them which is stated to be from the pen of the Supreme Lord. Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita is an authoritative work which abounds with precepts which are His according to the evidence of the Goswamis; hence it is that this book carries respect in all quarters. The author composed it shortly after Mahaprabhu's time. Some of the direct disciples of Mahapraabhu, such as Sri Das Goswami and Rupa Goswami helped the author in the enterprise. This work has been enriched by materials gathered from Sri Chaitanya Chandrodayanataka by Sri Kabi Karnapura Which appeared for the sanskrit knowing section and Sri Chaitanya Bhagabata by Sri Brindaban Das Thakur Which went on to describe only the early life of the Lord. We are led to follow Krishnadas when we weigh difference circumstances.

During the twenty four years of His household life He taught the glory of the transcendental name of Hari and the imperative necessity of chanting, in the compound of Sribash's house, on the bank of the Ganges in the sanskrit schools, or on the way and, after his renouncing the world, in this instructions to Sarvabhauma at Purushottam Kshetra, to Roy Ramananda at Vidyanagar, Venkata Bhatta at Shrirangam, Ballabh Bhatta and Rupa Goswami and in the shape of hints Raghupati Upadhyaya at Prayag, and Sanatana and Prakashananda at Benaras. We can safely pick out His teachings from these sources.

It was His infinite love for the people of this world that promoted Mahaprabhu to preach Vaishnavasim or eternal function of the soul to all throughout India.

He went to some countries Himself and preached there, while to others He sent preachers endowing them with supernatural powers and abilities. Theirs was love's labour. They got no reward or remuneration for their services nor hoped for any. No true religion can have a hold on the people, if not preached by men of sterling worth and character. Hence it is that though mercenaries are engaged in the preaching of certain doctrines now-a-days they can do very little of appreciable value.

We find in the Eighth chapter of the first part (Adilila) of Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita that Sri Krishna Chaitanya in His five-fold manifestation blessed the world with the gift of the transcendental Name and Love for Krishna. Rupa and Sanatana are despatched to Mathura. They were commissioned to propagate the doctrine of Bhakti which is the only serving function of the unalloyed soul fostered in favour of Krishna without any ambition for amelioration or salvation. Nityananda was sent to Gauda which He overflowed with Bhakti. He Himself went to the Deccan and travelled village to village of which the inhabitants were taught the system of reciting the transcendental Name of Krishna. They spread the message of Bhakti up to Setubandha and, endowing the people with love For Krishna, relieved them from the bondage of worldly affinity.

The mainspring of the teachings of Mahaprabhu is this; that love for Krishna is the eternal religion of Jiva or individual soul. The soul cannot remain devoid of it forever. But he forgets Krishna and is dominated by illusion (Maya) and, as a result, becomes attracted towards other objects, hence this Dharma wellnigh conceals itself in some inner cell of the soul. It is for this that Jiva suffers misery in this world. But if the Jiva ever becomes lucky enough to recollect that he is the eternal servant of God, he reverts to his own eternal nature which is his normal condition. Belief in this truth is the root of all good.

Faith arises in two ways. Some men, when their tenure of bondage nears the end, by virtue of their cumulated good fortune of previous births, recoup their innate aptitude to rely on Krishna. Chaitanya Charitamrita, Middle part, ch.23, that says if by a stroke of fortune a Jiva happens to embrace transcendental faith, he acquires a love the company of self-realised souls, 'Sraddha' is the word used here. It means faith. Chaitanya Charitamrita says Sraddha means firm faith in this; that if you have devotion to Krishna, nothing remains to be done. So we can fairly determine that full reliance on Krishna satisfies all that we covet for. When we are free from disturbance by a turn of good luck, Sraddha which lies in a dormant state in our eternal nature wakes up in our devotional activities. Whenever a man is found to have such determinate reliance on the Absolute, his devotional temper progresses gradually in the company of experienced and worthy devotees and he can then dispense with his unpromising habits which prove to oppose his advancements. His confidence turns to Nistha (undeviating continuity), Ruchi (taste), Asakti (attachment to the transcendental reality), and Bhaba (a combination of feelings indicative of love, ecstatic and assiduous devotion).

Spontaneous Sraddha, if it springs vigorously, voluntarily flows through the channel of Raga, and without caring for the mandatory injunction of the Shastras successfully flows its own career through the region of Bhab, or, in other words, Rati for Krishna, to consummation. But the aspirant's mild conviction is ameliorated by the sound arguments of a good preceptor. To follow the injunction of a preceptor as well as to study the Shastras is found to be the basis of one's conviction; and the guidance of the Shastras is essentially necessary as a rule. In Adi, ch.7, we have, 'Prabhu said, "My Lord, listen to the cause of it. My preceptor found that I was a fool and said, 'You have not the capacity for the mastering the abstruse Vedanta. Recite the Name of Krishna incessantly. This is the best of mantras. The mantra of Krishna will relieve you from the bondage of worldly affinity. The name of Krishna will take you to the feet of Krishna. In this iron age there is no other religion than the Name is the essence of all mantras- this is the purport of the scriptures'. Having said this he taught me a sloka to recite and ponder. The sloka runs thus:-

'Hari's Name, Hari's Name It is the Name of Hari alone: In this iron age. There is no other way at all, none at all".

Having heard this mandate, I took the Name incessantly, and, as I did so, in course of time my mind got loose from its bonds. I could not control myself but became mad outright.'

'I laughed and wept and danced and sang like a mad man. Recovering control I thought within my mind that the name of Krishna had overpowered my intellect and that I had gone mad and could not restrain myself. Thus revolving in my mind I made this humble submission at the feet of my preceptor, "Master, what a mantra you have a given me! What mysterious power it has got! As I go on reciting it, it makes me mad; it makes me laugh, dance and weep." On this my spiritual preceptor said to me,"It is the nature of the great mantra of the Name of Krishna that natural aptitude towards Krishna is aroused in him who repeats it. Love for Krishna is the ultimate goal of a person. The four great acquisitions are as straws in comparison."

We gather one thing from what The Lord, said. When He says, 'Recite and ponder," He means that Sraddha or faith is developed by a discussion of the scriptures with a view to understand them. In the opinion of the Lord, the confirmation of the Scriptures or, rather, the Vedas alone is the only true test. The science of polemics is of no avail. In Chaitanya Charitamrita, Adi (First Part), ch.7, in His instruction for the guidance of the ascetics He says, "The self-revealing Veda is the crowning evidence."

Again, in the 20th chapter of the middle part of Chaitanya Charitamrita we have the following instruction to Sanatan Goswami, 'a creature labouring under illusion remembers not Krishna. So Krishna kindly created the Veda and Puranas'.

It is but evident that there are two degrees of faith: mild faith and strong faith. The reverence that arises in us out of strong faith is also strong, and, by nature, has the character of Bhava. Our supreme Lord's Eight Teachings (Sikshastakam) deal with them in a comprehensive manner. He thus spoke of mild faith to Sanatan (Chaitanya Charitamrita), middle part ch, 23)' If a man has the grace to feel Sraddha, he consorts with pious men, from which companionship result the hearing and chanting of Krishna's Name. From the attainment of Bhakti, all his troubles are removed, and as a consequence of the latter his faith becomes constant, which gives him a taste for the listening and [hymning of Krishna's name]. From taste (ruchi) comes strong inclination (asakti), which gives birth to the sprout of passion for Krishna in the soul. When this emotion is deepened, it takes the name of love (prema). That love is the (ultimate) end and the source of every bliss.'

When Sraddha is strong the rituals of the Shastras are not necessary; men of mild Sraddha must follow the Shastras and associate with pious men; diksha or initiation is absolutely necessary for them. We should learn the shastras and take mantra from a holy preceptor and worship the Holy images, in the way shown by him. All these will facilitate his spiritual development. This is Dashmulasikha (Ten Cardinal principles). Proof is one of the principles while Prameyas or things that are to be proved are nine in number.

A devotee having strong Sraddha has an innate faith in chanting the Name which facilitates the understanding of the Prameyas only by the grace of the Holy Name. He has not to bother himself about praman (proof).

A man having mild Sraddha, if he does not take recourse to praman (proof), slips his foothold through evil company. The Vedas are the only authoritative proof (Praman). The Vedas are voluminous and contain a good deal of provisions for the karmins and jnanins; hence it becomes difficult to pick out those portions that are meant solely for the suddhabhaktas (those who have devotions unadulterated by Karma or Jnana). The Sattvika puranas have this function only, they explain clearly the basic principles of the Vedas which are scattered here and there as the Abhidheya of the Vedas. Of all the Sattvika Puranas Sreemadbhagabata is the greatest and most useful in mastering the true meaning of the Vedas. Therefore, the Bhagavata and the Tantras such as Pancharatra are also authoritative proofs.

In His teaching to Sanatan He says, 'the Vedas treat of Sambandha (relation), Abhidheya (means) and Prayjon (need) That relation is the attaining of Krishna ; faith is the means of that attainment,-- the means are His Names ; love is the (supreme) need , the most precious treasure and the highest achievement of humanity.

Relation.- Chit (jiva),achit and Iswar are related to one another. This is relation. It is true that Krishna is One without a second. He has two powers, achit and jiva. The achit power is resolved into the material world; while Jiva power transforms itself into the Jaiva (animate) world. If you reason about relation you find that the regaining of the status of servitude to Krishna is the establishment of the relationship. In his teaching to Sarvabhaum, He says that in essence He is the master and has not the slightest tinge of illusion in Him In all the Vedas Bhagawan is the only Object of relationship.

Again in His teachings to Sanatan, we find that that the attainment of Krishna is the relation, and Bhakti (devotional service) is the means of the attainment.

In this reasoning about the relationship there are seven subjects for discussion, --- (a) reasoning about Krishna, (b) discussion about Krishna's powers, (c) Rasattwa, (d) Jiva, (e) his worldly bondage, (f) redemption of the soul, (g) Achintyabhedabheda -- inconceivable simultaneous distinction and non-distinction. The knowledge of the relationship is based on a thorough discussion of each of the above seven Prameyas or things to be demonstrated.

The means -- Words are arranged in a written composition. The force of a sentence as indicated by the ordinary literal meaning of each of the words is the Abhidha Sakti, e.g.,'ten elephants' means elephants numbering ten. This is the literal meaning or abhidha.

There is another force of words lakshana or implication, not the literal meaning; as for example, "Ghose-palli on the Ganges". There can be no village Ghosepalli in water. It implies that the village stands on the bank of the Ganges. This is lakshana. Abhidha or the literal meaning does not operate where Lakshana or an implied meaning is necessary. Where the sense follows easily and naturally Abhidha is operative.

The literal meaning of the contents of the Vedas is to be accepted. We should learn to know Abhidheya or the real meaning of the Vedas. If we scrutinize all the Vedas properly we find that unalloyed devotion of Godhead is the Abhidheya of them all, while Karma, Jnana and Yoga are of secondary importance in comparison. They cannot be held to be of primary importance. Hence the principle highroad for the attainment of Krishna as indicated by them is the means -Sadhana bhakti. This is one of the subjects to be demonstrated.

Prayojana is the end for the attainment of which means are to be adopted. The attainment of love is another Prameya. Now we get nine Prameyas.

We find in His instructions to Sanatana, 'In the Vedas Krishna is only object related to us. Now hear what is connoted by Abhidheya which is the means of attaining Krishna and the treasure of the love of Krishna.'

This was the Supreme Lord's method of teaching Jaivadharma or the religion of the soul.

The Supreme Lord Sri Krishna Chaitanya.

(Continued from P.259 April 1929.)

ONE day the Supreme Lord having taken His meal after a short rest on the conclusion of Kirtan laid Himself down alongside the entrance to His sleeping chamber. Govinda who used to attend on the person of the Lord at the time when He retired to bed finding the Lord lying against the door, spread the piece of cloth worn by him as outer covering over the body of the Lord and in that manner crossed over to the inside of the chamber and engaged in tending the feet of Lord.

Considering it a grave offence to come out of the room of his own meal by crossing the body of the Lord a second time and minding a specially the excessive exertion in Kirtan of that day of the Lord, Govinda continued tending the Lord's person delaying to take his food. After exhibiting the pastime awaking from sleep the Lord asked Govinda the reason for having stayed there without food up till then. Although the Lord Himself demanded to know, Govinda without mentioning at all that he had been employed in tending His person simply replied that he had not crossed the body of the Lord through fear of committing offence. By means of this conduct of Govinda, the Supreme Lord made manifest to the world the ideal of the devotee who is free from all guile. The gratification of the senses of Krishna is the only object that the ideal devotee has in view. The pure devotee has a repugnance for and an apprehension of offence by the least lurking wish for the gratification of his own senses in promoting the gratification of the senses of Krishna. The food that already have been offered to the Supreme Lord is part and parcel of the Supreme essence and such food is honoured by the devotee by reason of its connection with the Lord. But the sincere devotee is afraid of being guilty of desiring the gratification of his own senses in the performance of the service of honouring Mahaprasad as it happens to be apparently a personal affair. The devotee who is free from guile is never anxious to advertise his devotion to the Lord by proclaiming the tiding of his own services to the object of service. The Supreme Lord taught these principles by means of the conduct of that eternal devotee of Guru, Sree Govinda. Govinda used with great care to make the Lord partake of the numerous varieties of basketfuls of delicacies supplied regularly by Raghav Pandit and Damayanti.

Thakur Haridas left this world in the act of beholding the Lord and chanting His Name. The Supreme Lord taking up the transcendental body of the Haridas into His own Holy arms, chanted the Kirtan and danced in the company of His devotees. The Lord then conveyed Thakur Haridas, accompanied by the congregational chant of Kirtan, to the sea-shore and bathed his body in the sea, and having washed the feet of Haridas, made the devotees drink the purified by the touch of his feet. Thereafter the Supreme Lord placed Haridas into his final resting place covering with sand with His own hand, the function being preceded by the congregational chanting of Kirtan. The Supreme Lord caused a memorial to be built over his resting place. The Lord having Himself begged alms from the shop-keepers at the Lion-Gate of the Temple of Sri Sri Jagannath Deva celebrated the festivity of his disappearance with great pomp to the accompaniment of singing the glories of Haridas.

During one of these years, after the arrival of the Gaudiya devotees at Puri, Paramaswera Modak of Sree Mayapur , introducing himself as the person who supplied the Lord during His lila as a child with milk-puddings etc., informed him that his wife had come with himself to Puri. The Lord exhibiting the lila of a sannyasi who is Guru of the whole world and Teacher of the people, displayed the ideal of experiencing a sense of hesitancy on hearing the mention of the name of a woman, although in this case of the lady in question happened to be of the age of His mother. Sri Jagadananda having procured with great care a pitcherful of sweet-scented Chandanadi oil from the home of Sree Sivananda Sen presented the same for the use of the Supreme Lord. The Lord exhibiting the lila of Teacher of the people said that the oil might be used for lighting the lamp of Sree Sree Jagannath Deva. It is not proper for sannyasi to anoint himself. On hearing this Pandit Jagadananda in a fit of loving pique broke to pieces to the vessel containing the oil in the view of the Lord and having bolted the door of his own room lay down without tasting any food. On the third day the Lord, who is subdued by the love of His devotees, with the object of breaking the mood of loving estrangement of His devotee, proceeding to the house of Jagadananda and persuading the Pandit as a personal favour to Himself to cook with his own hand, accepted the food prepared by him and made the Pandit honour the prasad. By means of this lila The Supreme Lord enacting the Pastime of Teacher of the people, impressed upon all the duty of passionately loving service of the Lord, Who is the sole Enjoyer of everything, by means of the very best offerings and taught that is a duty of the spiritual novice to avoid all sensuous enjoyment and cultivate the practice of detachment from the world.

Aware of the fact that the Supreme Lord experienced great discomfort for having to lie on a mat made of bands stripped of plantain bark Jagadananda having prepared quilt, pillow etc., the Supreme Lord did not accept them. Sri Swarup Goswami Prabhu having made strips of plantain bark into likenesses of quilt and pillow and offering the same to Him, the Supreme Lord accepted them after much objection. By means of this lila the lord warned those Sannyasis who were in the stage of neophytes. On hearing the sound of song of Gitagobinda from the lips of female attendants at the temple of the Supreme Lord, in the state of semiexternal consciousness. Forgetting Himself under the influence of love was making headlong towards a female attendant through wild growths of prickly plants, and Gobinda having intervened, the Lord hearing the word 'woman' uttered by Gobinda thanked him very much. By this lila the Lord forbade by all means the opinions held by psilanthropists under the pretext of an attempt to listen to Krishna-song from the lips of unknown females on the part of a sannyasi or Vashnaiba. When Sri Raghunath Bhatta came to Purushottama from Kashi he brought with him a certain Pandit of the name of Ramdas Biswas, belonging to the community of Ramananda. The Lord showed indifference towards Ramdas Who cherised in his heart the desire for salvation and vanity of learning although enacting outward humanity and an aptitude for serving Vaishnabas.Having forbidden Raghunath Bhatta to marry, the Lord sent him back to Kashi for the service of the Vaishnabas.

One day the Lord standing near the Garuda pillar in the temple of Sri Jagannathdeva, was engaged in beholding the Holy figure of Jagannath. A certain aged Oriya woman putting her feet unconsciously on the shoulder of the Lord, was gazing at Jagannatha with great eagerness. Gobinda having made the woman alight , the Lord manifested great love while praising the earnestness of the woman. One day the Lord manifested the lila of lying down in the inner chamber at night bolting all its three doors. After a short while Gobinda and Swarup saw that all the doors remained bolted but the Lord had disappeared. Seeing this Swarup and the other devotees began to search and found the Lord to the north of the Lion-Gate in an unconscious state, His body greatly enlarged on account of relaxation of the joints of the bones. The Lord regaining His consciousness as the result of the chanting of the name of Krishna by the devotees they brought Him back to His chamber. On another occasion while the Supreme Lord was moving fast towards sandhills considering them to be Gobardhan Mount perturbations reducing Him to the fixed condition of a marble pillar and a wonderful state due to the presence of the highest love illustrated by horripilation and other signs which made Him look like the Kadamba flower were manifested to the view of the devotees.

The Lord descending to the external state by the loud chanting of the Name of Hari by Gobinda and other devotees was thereupon conducted by them to His residence.

Under the influence of great love the Supreme Lord used to give vent to His lamentations clasping the necks of Swarup and Ramanada, in the mood of handmaid of Gopi and, entering the garden of flowers considering it to be Brindaban, would enquire about Krishna from all the trees, creepers, shrubs and animals.

By bestowing on Kalidas, who fed on the leavings of the meals Jharuthakur who made his appearance in a family of scavengers, the mercy of permission of drinking water touched by His own feet the Supreme Lord did away with the objection to honour the leavings of the meal of a Vaisnava on the ground of birth and proclaimed the infinite power of Mahaprasad in helping the spiritual novice to success. Paramanandapuridas, the seven years old son of Shivananda, came to the Supreme Lord, obtained the Mahamantra of the Name of Hari and gave proofs of his transcendental poetical power.

One day in the midst of diverse activities of delirium due to love the Lord was discovered at midnight lying in the form of a tortoise in the midst of Tailangi cows having crossed to the place over three separate lines of walls without opening the gates.

Another day on a moonlit night the Lord beholding the sea from Aitota jumped into it considering it to be the Jamuna. A certain fisherman taking Him to be a large fish dragged the Lord ashore in an unconscious state by means of his fishing net. The fisherman was overpowered by love as soon as he touched the Lord. The fisherman suspected that he was possessed with an evil spirit and was going in search of an exorciser when he was found in that condition by the devotees led by Sree Swarup Goswami who were coming along the sea-shore after having searched for the lord at different places by different methods. Being informed of the fact that the very fisherman had raised the Supreme Lord from the sea the devotees made their way to the place where the Lord lay and having slowly brought Him back to the external state by means of loud Kirtan of the Name and having learnt from the lord's own holy mouth the narrative of His great love brought Him back to His house.

On one occasion Sri Jagadananda brought from Sri Nabadwip a certain riddle in rhyme composed by Sri Advaita Acharya. After reading it the mood of separation of the Supreme Lord increased in intensity. The confidential devotees were enabled to understand that the Supreme Lord would shortly manifest the lila of disappearance. In the delirium of separation the Lord began to exhibit the lila of divine madness in the form of rubbing the face against the wall of the sanctum. One day in the garden of Jagannath Ballav under the over-powering influence of great love He manifested ten varieties of speaking strange gossip. Sometimes the Lord passed the night tasting the octade of teaching composed by Himself in the company of Sri Swarup and Ramananda in the mood of anxious concern in the forms of humility, apprehension etc.; or again sometimes the ocean of deep love of separation welled up in ever-new forms as the result of tasting the verses of Sri Geeta Gobinda, Karnamrita, the drama of Sri Jagannatha Ballav, Srimad Bhagabata, etc.

In this manner the Supreme Lord manifested the first part of His Divine activities by enacting the during the first twenty-four years of His life the lila of a householder. During the concluding twenty-four years of His career the first six years were employed in preaching pure devotion over all India as crest-jewel of Sannyasis enacting the lila of Acharya. Of the closing eighteen years the first six were occupied by the activities as Acharya resident at Puri, in the company of his devotees; and the last twelve years were passed in tasting constantly the mellow quality of transcendence in association with His intimate devotees. After elaborating the lila of His appearance for forty-eight years the Lord manifested the lila of disappearance by means of His own power of voluntary withdrawal from the view of this world.

Sri Sri Chaitanya Bhagabat

(Continued from P. 291, May 1929.)

Chapter XIII—(Continued)

  1. Saraswati herself is the speaker on his tongue.
    Can a mortal withstand him in controversy?”
  2. Thousands of eminently learned Bhattacharyyas
    Pondered over it in their minds laying aside all work.
  3. One all sides all the people raised the clamour—
    'We shall now know the measure of everybody's intelligence.'
  4. All these events the great body of students
    Narrated in the presence of their Teacher Gauranga.
  5. "A great scholar, the victors of Pandits of all directions having gained over Saraswati, makes a triumphal
    progress through all parts of the country displaying their written confession of his supremacy.
  6. "He is numerously escorted by elephants, horses, conveyances and attendants;
    And is now stopping at Navadwip.
  7. "He has thrown out challenge to meet in controversy his rivals at Navadwip.
    And demands a written confession of his victory from all learned bodies if his challenge is not accepted."
  8. Gaur, that Jewel among teachers, on hearing the tidings from His disciple
    Began smilingly to speak these words, embodying the real truth.
  9. "Attend, all brethren, I am telling you the truth
    The Supreme Lord does not tolerate Conceit in any form.
  10. The Lord surely withdraws all those quality Intoxicated by whose possession one indulges in vanity.
  11. The tree that bears fruits and the person who is possessed of truly Good qualities
    Are always humble by nature.
  12. "Haihai Nahush , Ben, Bon, Narak, Ravana,
    All whom you have ever heard as having been the greatest conquerors,-
  13. "Consider well, where is the person whose vanity is not broken to pieces?
    The Supreme Lord never tolerates egotism.
  14. "Wherefore, all the vanity of learning that he has
    Will be completely taken away even at this place and you will witness it.
  15. Saying this with a smile the Lord with the company of His disciples
    Came merrily to the bank of the Ganges in the evening.
  16. After touching with reverence the water and making obeisance to the Ganges
    Gauranga Sri Hari sat down with His disciples
  17. The students forming themselves into many a group
    Took their seats on all sides in a most beautiful manner.
  18. In an endless pastime of discourses on religion and the Shastra
    The Lord sat delighted on the bank of the Ganges.
  19. Without telling anything, the Lord thought within Himself "in what manner shall I overcome the Victor of all quarters?
  20. "This Brahman cherishes most inordinate vanity -- 'There is no one in the world who is my rival!'
  21. 'If I vanquish him in view of the people He will become thereby as one dead in this world.
  22. 'All the persons will slight the Brahman. They will plunder him of everything and the Bipra will die of grief.
  23. "In order that the Brahman may experience no pain but his pride may be gone I will conquer this Victor of all directions in a private place.
  24. As the Lord thought thus, presently the conqueror of all quarters
    Turned up there at that hour of evening.
  25. The night was free from the least obscurity due to the full moon. Who can describe the beauty that reposed on the Bhagirathi?
  26. The Lord was on the bank of the Ganges with His pupils,
    Whose beauty captivates the minds of all in the countless words.
  27. The Holy-moon like face was ever lit up with a smile. His two beautiful eyes shed constantly a supremely gracious glance.
  28. The charming teeth scorned the sheen of pearls, the lips were tinged with red. All limbs were exceedingly soft and full of tender mercy.
  29. His beautiful head was adorned with a profusion of graceful curls,
    With the mane of a lion, broad elephantine shoulders and magnificent dress.
  30. His Holy form was vast in stature with beautiful bosom
    Which was graced by the presence of Sri Ananta in the likeness of the sacrificial thread.
  31. The divine forehead was marked with the charming tilak pointing upwards.
    His twin beautiful arms depended to the knee.
  32. With the cloth tied up in the manner worn by yogis,
    Resting His right foot between the folds of the left thigh,
  33. The Lord was engaged in the act of explaining the Shastras,
    Disproving what was affirmed and proving what was negatived.
  34. All the disciples in many a circling group sat around Him in beautiful array.
  35. The conqueror of all quarters was delightfully surprised by the unique sight.
    He thought in his mind, 'He seems like Nimai Pandit!'
  36. The conqueror of all quarters, remaining unobserved,
    Gazed on the beauty of the Lord without taking off his eyes.
  37. He enquired of His disciples, "what is His name?"
    The student replied, "He is the famed Nimai Pandit."
  38. Then making obeisance to the Ganges that good Brahman
    Made his way into midst of the assembly of the Lord.
  39. On seeing him the Lord with a slight smile
    Invited him affectionately to take a seat.
  40. The conqueror of all quarters was most fearless,
    Yet was filled with awe on beholding the Lord.
  41. This is the nature of the power of the Lord's real-self
    That the very sight of Him produces spontaneous dread.
  42. The Lord after exchanging a few words with the Brahman
    Began to ask him about other subjects in a joyous mood.
  43. The Lord said, 'There is no limit to the excellence of your poetic power;
    There is no subject that you cannot describe.
  44. Recite something in praise of the Ganges
    By listening to which the sin of all may be absolved.'
  45. Hearing the words of the Lord the conqueror of all quarters
    Began forthwith to describe the holy stream.
  46. The Brahman poured out his eulogy so Fast
    And in such diverse ways that it baffled the understanding of all.
  47. It was as if many a cloud thundered into the ear,
    Such was the solemn delivery of his noble verse.
  48. Saraswati herself was installed on his tongue.
    What-so-ever he uttered carried perfect conviction.
  49. Who with the powers of mortal could impeach him?
    There was no one so learned who could even understand.
  50. All the disciples of the Lord, who counted by the thousand,
    Were struck dumb as they listened to the narrative.
  51. 'Rama! Rama! How wonderful!
    Marvelled the disciples, 'can such words manifest themselves in mortal man?
  52. All the wonderful rhetorical embellishments that are in the world—
    There was no part of the poetic description that had anything else save the same.
  53. Even for them who were most highly versed in all the Shastras,
    It was most difficult to understands his utterances.
  54. In this manner the conqueror of all quarters, through well-high a quarter of the night,
    Went on with his wonderful recitation and yet did not finish.
  55. Then after the victor of all parts had ended and had leisure to attend Sri Gaurasundar spoke laughingly.
  56. 'The purpose of the employment of your words
    Cannot be understood unless you yourself explain.
  57. 'Wherefore be pleased to favour us with your own exposition of them,
    Whatever words you use to explain anything carry high conviction.'
  58. Hearing the words of the Lord that steal the minds of all
    The good Brahman began to explain.
  59. No sooner did he state his meaning The Lord took a triple exception, opposing the beginning, the middle and the end.
  60. The Lord said, 'In using all these verbal embellishments
    It is insuperably difficult to be correct by the standard of the Shastras.
  61. 'Will you tell me the purpose,' said Gauranga Sri Hari, 'That you have in view in employing them?’
  62. The conqueror of all quarters, the great pet child of Saraswati,
    Was left without inspiration and his intelligence disappeared.
  63. The Brahman talked at random and failed to explain anything. Gauranga Sundar pointed out the defects of everything that he said.
  64. All his genius most inexplicably deserted him.
    The Brahman did not understand what he himself said.
  65. The Lord said, 'Let it alone, recite something else'.
    But he no longer possessed the old power of recital.
  66. His bewilderment in the presence of the lord was no wonder,
    Before whom even the Veda suffers hallucination.
  67. Ananta himself, the Four-Faced One, He with five mouths;
    By the glance of all of whom the infinity of the worlds is produced;--
  68. In whose presence even these suffer delusion,
    What wonder was the confusion of the Brahman is the presence of the lord.
  69. Lakshmi, Saraswati and all the diverse spiritual powers of the Lord-
    Whose shadows delude these countless worlds--
  70. Even they feel deluded in the presence Divine;
    Wherefore they always keep behind their Lord.
  71. In whose presence even Shesha, author of the Veda, suffers bewilderment.
    What for Him was this delusion of the conqueror of all quarters?
  72. All these deeds are impossible for mortal man,
    Whence I assert that all His acts are true.
  73. All the activities that are exhibited by the Lord are at bottom
    For the Purpose of delivering miserable Jivas.
  74. As the conqueror of all quarters was entering the state of defeat
    The students made ready to indulge in derisive laughter.
  75. But the Lord forbade them all. He spoke kindly to the Brahman,
  76. 'May you betake yourself auspiciously towards your lodgings today.
    I will discuss everything tomorrow.
  77. You must be feeling fatigued by your long recitations.
    The night is also far advanced. So you should think of retiring to rest.
  78. Such is the tender behaviour of the Lord. Even one whom He vanquishes suffers no pain.
  79. The Lord vanquished all the Professors who lived at Navadwip.
    But mollified them all in the end.
  80. 'To your home today and look up the books.
    Be prepared to answer What I ask tomorrow.'
  81. Even when he won he did not kill the spirits of the vanquished.
    So all were pleased with Him, such was His funny way.
  82. Wherefore all the pundits that lived at Nabadwip
    Loved the Lord very much in their minds.
  83. The Lord returned home in the company of His pupils.
    The conqueror of all quarters was much ashamed at heart.
  84. The Brahman was stricken with grief and thought within himself,
    'Saraswati herself bestowed the boon on me.
  85. 'Among all those who are well versed in Nyaya, Sankhya, 'Patanjala, Mimansa, Vaisheshika, Vedanta,
  86. 'I found none in the world 'Who could even argue with me, let alone the question of victory.
  87. 'The Brahman teaches Vyakarana which is fit study for infants.
    He has beat me sure, such is the contrivance of Providence.
  88. 'It seems that the boon of Saraswati is to go by default.
    This also has filled my mind with a great suspicion.
  89. 'Is it that some offence has been committed against the goddess
    And, therefore, my genius has suffered this failure?
  90. "I will surely ascertain the reason of it today.'
    Saying this the Brahman seated himself to silent recital of the Mantra.
  91. After mentally repeating the Mantra the Brahman lay down to rest in a fit of grief.
    Saraswati appeared before him in a dream.
  92. Casting her glance of mercy of the fortunate Brahman
    Saraswati began to tell him the most hidden secret.
  93. Said Saraswati, " Listen, worthy Brahman, I am going to disclose to you the secrets of the Vedas.
  94. 'If you give these out to anybody your life will surely be cut short.
  95. 'He by whom you have been vanquished
    Is verily the Lord of the infinity of the worlds.
  96. 'Whose lotus feet I tend perpetually as handmaid
    And in Whose presence I feel ashamed to appear.
  97. 'By her deluded who is ashamed to abide in the view of the Lord
    Those possessed of perverted judgements talk deliriously of "I and mine".
  98. 'It is I myself who speak on your tongue, O Brahman.
    My power avails not in the view of the Lord.
  99. 'What of me? The Divine Sheshadeva
    Who expatiates on the Veda with a thousand mouths,
  100. 'Whom the Gods headed by Aja and Bhaba worship,
    Even Shesha, confesses delusion in the presence of the Lord.
  101. 'The great one Who transcends everything, is eternal, pure, indivisible, irreducible, Who dwells in the hearts of all in all His plenitude.
  102. Work, knowledge, learning, all that is either good or bad,
    The visible and the unseen -- how enumerate them all to you?
  103. By whom all are completely absorbed.
    You have seen face to face even the self-same Lord in the form of a Brahman.
  104. Lo! All those from Brahma downwards, who are subject to happiness and sorrow,--
    Know, Bipra, all this takes place by His command.
  105. All Divine manifestations in this mundane world of whom you have ever heard,
    Fish, Tortoise and all the rest are nothing, O Bipra, but this Brahman.
  106. It is He Who as the Boar firmly established the world.
    He protected Prahlad in the form of man-lion.
  107. He in the form of the Dwarf is the life of Bali.
    From Whose lotus feet the Ganges has her birth.
  108. It is he who appeared in Ayodhya, Killed Ravana by endless pastimes.
  109. Him we call the son of Vasudeva and Nanda
    Even He is now this son of a Brahman indulging in tasting learning.
  110. Does even the Veda itself know of His manifestation in the world?
    One may know if only He makes Himself Known, otherwise who has power to know?
  111. Of the Mantras that you ever repeated to me in silence
    Conquest of all quarters is not the proper reward.
  112. The proper reward that inheres in my Mantra you have received only now.
    You have seen the Lord of the endless worlds face to face.
  113. Hie thee, Bipra even to His feet
    And surrender yourself to Him.
  114. 'Don't regard as empty dream these words.
    I have divulged to you the hidden things of the Veda under the influence of the Mantra.'
  115. Saying this Saraswati vanished out of sight.
    The highly fortunate Brahman awoke from sleep.
  116. The worthy Bipra, immediately he woke up.
    In earliest dawn proceeded to the presence of the Lord.
  117. The Brahman coming up to the Lord made prostrated obeisances.
    The Lord also lifted the Brahman to His arms.
  118. The Lord said, 'why, brother, what behaviour is this?
    The Brahman replied, "Even as Thy merciful glance."
  119. The Lord asked, "Being yourself the conqueror of all quarters,
    Why then do you behave thus towards Me?"
  120. Said the Victor of quarters, 'Deign to listen, King of Brahmans.
    'All activity is crowned with success by serving only Thee.
  121. 'Thou art Narayana in the Form of Bipra in this age of Strife.
    Who possesses the power of recognising Thee?